A skilled writer may defy any of these ethical considerations without his audience being able to spot it.  Below are listed additional caveats that may not necessarily mean that a source is inaccurate, irrelevant, or otherwise unusable, but which should definitely be considered in your overall evaluation of whether or not to use a source.  Look out for information frames and information malpractice.

Information Frames

Framing is an important concept to understand inasmuch as it shapes how information is shared and interpreted.  Here are some examples:

  1. An editorial in the Tribune that laments how lazy and unmotivated millennials are instead of focusing on the moribund job market. 
  2. Someone who denies global warming by complaining about government overreach instead of discussing the science, itself.
  3. A politician who wants to cut funding for scientific research and justifies it by only presenting examples of unpopular or frivolous-sounding studies.
  4. Someone who editorializes about sexual assault by focusing on the culture of drinking on college campuses instead of the actual crime. 

These are ways of packaging information that attempt to delegitimize or minimize one aspect of the discussion while focusing almost entirely on another.  Be wary of information sources that focus entirely on one aspect of a subject without showing how it relates to other aspects. Some typical frames are:

 anonymous-nodding-donkey-300px    Pro-Industry                                         antiindustry.jpg       Anti-Industry 


  martin-luther-king-300px     Pro-Social Issue                                      antisocialmovement     Anti-Social Issue       


  sheikh-tuhin-save-environment-300px    Pro-Environmental Concern             anti-environmental    Anti-Environmental Concern


  washington-lincoln-presidents-day-300px    Pro-Government                                molotov_star-300px    Anti-Government


The information presented within these frameworks might be completely factual, but the presentation of the facts is seen only through the window that fits within the author’s frame.  Thus, it may exclude important information from the discussion.


Information Malpractice

Other things to be watchful for are the various kinds of information malpractice.  Malpractice is defined as improper, illegal, or negligent activity. In the realm of research, here are some examples of information malpractice:

johnny-automatic-greedy-man-300px     Conflict of interest:  The authors or source have a conflict of interest in presenting the arguments they present.

johnny-automatic-photocopier-300px-1       Plagiarism:   The authors have stolen the language or ideas of other sources without giving them credit.

cherry-v1-1-digital    Cherry-picking Science:  The authors have tried to make a point by using only pieces of science that support their argument while ignoring other evidence that contradicts them.

caveman   Presenting History without its Context:  The authors use quotes or historical events to make a point about the modern world without fully acknowledging the socio-political context in which those events happened.

off-balance-scale       False Equivalence: The author presents an equivalence between two competing sides of an argument, when in fact there is only superficial similarity.

is-not-2        Treating All Opinions as Equal: The author gives expert sources and non-expert sources equal weight.