Scholarly publishing and communication refers to the creation of new knowledge and its dissemination to relevant academic audiences. Public dissemination of knowledge has become cheaper, faster and easier in the digital age, but is not without its challenges. In science, scholarly communication often begins with an observation or series of observations about phenomena. Some empirical observations are seen also in the humanities and social sciences. From simple ideas, hypotheses are developed and new interventions and drugs tested as to effectiveness. Small observations lead to identifying clinical management potential in medicine. Medical researchers often begin the process of framing research questions by discussing them with their colleagues and may follow discussions at journal clubs and via social media. In the web 2.0 era, new ideas can be introduced and debated via social networks such as blogs or Twitter. Read more on HLWIKI International.